Commands to connect to another machine or user:
|xhost HOSTNAME||If you want to call X-windows from the other machine, you have to allow them (HOSTNAME) to put the windows on your display.|
|telnet HOSTNAME||Start a telnet connection to another computer.
It will ask you about your USERNAME and PASSWORD
rlogin -l USERNAME HOSTNAME
|Build up a remote login to the specified host. With "-l USERNAME" you can choose a different username instead of your actual name. It depends on the other machine, if it will ask for your PASSWORD or not.|
|su - USERNAME||With "su" you can switch to a different user, on the same terminal. The minus is needed for switching also the complete environement.|
|export DISPLAY=LOCALHOST:0.0||setenv DISPLAY LOCALHOST:0.0||If you like to start X-window programs on this remote machine, you
have to tell them on which computer you like to see your window.
The command export or setenv depends on your command shell which is by default the bash on linux and the csh on sun systems. So it can be also exchanged.
|exit||To leave the remote computer.|
|passwd||With passwd you can change your password.
It will ask you for your old password, and two times for the new one.
Commands to live in a filesystem:
|man -k SEARCHNAME
|Read the online manual about commands.
With "-k" you can search for keywords in the short description of the registered commands.
ls -al PATH
|Display the entries in the actual directory.
"-a" also, but including the hidden files (hidden: all file / folder -names which starts with a "." dot).
"-l" show the entries in the long form with date, size and acls (see at chmod).
You can specify also a different PATH.
|Move yourself through the filesystem.
Without any parameter cd will bring you to your HOMEFOLDER.
|mkdir FOLDERNAME||Create a new folder.|
|rmdir FOLDERNAME||Delete a empty folder.|
|cp ORIGINAL NEWFILE||Copy files, from one to another location.|
|mv OLDPATHNAME NEWPATHNAME||Move a file or folder to an other location;
or rename a file or folder.
|rm FILE||Remove (delete) one or some files.|
|ln -s ORIGINALNAME ALIASNAME||Create a (symbolic) link of a file or folder.|
|chmod ugo+r FILE_or_FOLDER_NAME
chmod go-rwx FILE_or_FOLDER_NAME
|Change the acl (access rights) of a file or folder.
- rwx rwx rwx = 3 groups of "rwx" for "u" user "g" group and "o" for the rest of the world. For each group you can specify the right for "r" read, "w" write or "x" execute access. At a folder the "x" means the right to go inside the folder. The first item (here "-") show a "d" for a directory, or "l" for a link.
With "ugo+r" you allow everybody to read this.
With "go-rwx" you disallow any access for every boby except yourself ("u" acls not touched).
|tar -cf TARFILE.tar PATH1 PATH2
tar -tf TARFILE.tar
tar -xf TARFILE.tar
|With tar you can copy files and folders (with
subfolders) into one file ".tar". The parameter "f" is needed to specify
the following TARFILE.
"c" will copy all FILES / FOLDERS into the TARFILE.
"t" will show you the packaged filenames.
"x" will extract the TARFILE.
"z" will compress the TARFILE into ".tar.gz" format; this parameter is not available on Sun, but here is also a solution for Sun systems shown.
|tar -czf TARFILE.tar.gz PATH1 PATH2
tar -tzf TARFILE.tar.gz
tar -xzf TARFILE.tar.gz
|tar -cf - PATH1 PATH2 | gzip > TARFILE.tar.gz
gzip -c -d TARFILE.tar.gz | tar -tf -
gzip -c -d TARFILE.tar.gz | tar -xf -
|This are the most common compression programs. The
source file will be replace!
gzip for ".gz" files.
compress for ".Z" files.
zip for ".zip" files.
Commands to handle jobs:
nice -19 COMMAND
|With nice you reduce the priority of the specified command. That means all ´non nice´ commands will be executed much faster. nice is very usefull for long running jobs. With the parameter "-NUMBER" you define different nice levels.|
|ps shows you your running jobs.
With the parameter "ax" or "ef" (solaris 2) you will get all running jobs.
kill -9 PROCESSNUMBER
|With kill you can remove a running job. "-9" will be the highest
priority to stop the process. The needed PID you will get from the
xkill will kill the next X-application, which you select with your mouse button.
lpr -P PRINTERNAME FILENAME
|With "lpr" you can print (mostly ascii or postscript (*.ps)) files. With the parameter "-P PRINTERNAME" it can be used a different printer instead of the default one.|
lpq -P PRINTERNAME
|This command will show you the actual status of the (choosen) printer.|
lprm -P PRINTERNAME
|If you want to delete a printjob from the queue, please use lpq (-P ...) to detect the JOBNUMBER and use lprm (-P ...) to remove this job.|
"cryo2q0.cal -> tmp/ttt/cryo2q0.cal"
|A aliasname is the same like a link, which points to the real file or folder. If you delete a link, the original file will be still intact. If you move a link in the filesystem, the correlation will be lost, if the link is relative.|
|COMMAND||ls -l /bin/ls||Executable files. The "x" in the acl´s define that the file is executable. If the file is an ascii file, it will be executed each line inside (shell script).|
|hallo.txt||A file can be data, commands, or everything else. Sometimes also a folder is included in this meaning.|
|bin||Folder = directory, which can contain subfolders and files.|
|IP-Name of the machine.
Usual you can specify also the ip-number instead.
|JOBNUMBER||13||Number to specify the print-job (you need it maybe for delete).|
|The ip-name or number of your local computer. (Where your screen is connected.)|
|PASSWORD||*****||Your personal password.|
|A path in the filesystem can start at root "/" (absolute) or be relative from your local position.|
|The name of a printer. (Some printers has more than one name, for different types of paper or somthing like that.)|
|102||The processnumber you can get from the ps command. It is used inside the operating system to indicate a running program (process).|
|TARFILE||allesdies.tar||A tarfile contains complete folders with subfolders or / and single files. The format is originaly defined for tape archives, and still mostly used.|
MHF-SL | DESY | [goe]